PHTN1300: Lasers and Light Sources
Characteristics of Laser Diodes (2018F)
Introduction
Laser diodes are by far the most common type of laser. In this lab the electrical and optical characteristics of a laser diode will be investigated including the effects of temperature. Concepts which will be introduced in this lab include the threshold of lasing (the minimum pump power required for a laser to produce an output), temperature control of optoelectronic devices, and industrystandard characterizations.
The laser diode used in this experiment is seen here on a goldplated mount. The diode sits atop a Peltier effect thermoelectric cooler module which can cool and heat the diode. On top of this assembly sits a thermocouple used to accurately monitor the temperature of the diode.
SAFETY WARNING
One of the purposes of this lab is to expose students to working with actual lasers. Be aware that even though these laser diodes are small, they emit a significant amount of optical power. NEVER look into the beam, NEVER place anything shiny into the beam, and ALWAYS ensure reflections such as those from the optical power meter sensor (which, for safety, must terminate the beam) does not endup where it could enter anyone's eyes. Jewelry and watches must be removed while working with all lasers.
Prelab (Do this BEFORE coming to the lab)
Prepare for the lab as follows:
 Download the datasheet for the Ushio HL63101MG laser diode here. From this datasheet determine the maximum current (do this by inspecting the parameters given), and output wavelength. If in doubt, print the datasheet (it is only four pages) and bring it to the lab then ask. You will be required to interpret a datasheet like this on a test (!)
 Bring your electronics kit (with jumper leads with alligator clips on the ends and a small flat screwdriver) to the lab
WARNING: Arrival to the lab without your parts kit including jumper cables will result in being marked ABSENT with the accompanying penalty (including a deduction in marks and being placed on course condition)  you will NOT be permitted time to "run home" to obtain your kit.

Submit the following upon entry to the lab:
Develop a methematical equation (from the datasheet provided) to predict the output power of the laser diode at 10C, 20C,and 30C, mathematically (i.e. using an equation to mathematically solve for output power and NOT by interpreting a single graph in the datasheet  the graph entitled "Optical output power vs forward current" is useless). Start by reviewing the datasheet for the device: On page 3 you will find graphs detailing both the slope efficiency as well as the threshold current as functions of temperature  you will need both values from these two graphs at each of the three temperatures.
Now, apply what you know about the line equation y= mx+b: you will formulate an equation of the form P_{out} = m * I + b (i.e. in the general form y=mx+b) then solve for the output power at the normal operating current (also found in the datasheet). This equation will be unique for each temperature since m and I_{threshold} are unique for each. You will, of course, need to solve for intercept 'b' for each equation by setting y=0 (i.e. P_{out}=0) at I=I_{threshold}.
 Show the complete development (i.e. all key steps you performed) for the formula "P_{out} =" for all three temperatures. Show all substituted values you obtained from the datasheet graphs.
 Using the three formulae you developed above, show the calculations for predicted output power at all three temperatures at the rated typical operating current. Again, show all substituted values.
The prelab assignment is worth 10% of the total lab mark and is due at the beginning of the first lab period. Late marks are not assigned if the prelab is not received at the beginning of the lab: you lose 10% of the total lab marks immediately with no recourse if it is not received upon entering the lab (extensions will NOT be given to "print it out" in the lab ... be prepared with the hardcopy already printed).
Unlike the lab report, prelabs may be handwritten or word processed (your choice), and may be submitted as stapled papers. You can use a report cover if you wish (it is optional) but do NOT use a BINDER.
Experiment
Connect a laser diode module and determine the characteristics as follows:
 Mount the laser diode to the optical bench since the bench is used as a heatsink for the TEC.
 With no diode connected to the ILX supply, set the current limit to the maximum for the diode (from the datasheet) by selecting the "LIM I" parameter and holding the "SET" button while rotating the control knob until the current display reads the required value. Verify this with the professor if required.
VERIFY the maximum current on the ILX supply is set to that specified in the datasheet BEFORE applying power to the diode!

 Align a power meter so that it intercepts ALL of the resulting laser beam (it must be close to the device). Mount the power meter on the bench and use two posts to align the optical sensor directly in front of the diode.
 Set the wavelength of the meter to match that specified in the datasheet (use the "typical" value). With the laser diode off, zero the power meter.
 Plug the diode laser module into the DB9 connector from the ILX supply.
 Rotate the current control knob counterclock wise until it stops to set the output current to zero
 Enable the output (MODE, Output ON)
 Read the temperature
 Vary current from zero to the maximum current specified for the diode in 1mA to 2mA increments (start at 2mA and use 1mA where the output power is seen to change rapidly  it will make the graphs much smoother). At each step for current, record the optical output power in mW. (The current is kept lower than maximum since temperature will be elevated).
The complete setup. The laser diode and optical power meter sensor are mounted on the optical breadboard. Connections between the power supply and the multimeter are shown as wires but in reality jumper clips should be used.
The power meter mounted to intercept the beam from the diode laser. Be sure the entire assembly is stable. Finally, before beginning the experiment turn the current to 22mA (at room temp) and ensure the laser is oscillating and the output is over 500μW.
Now, complete the experiment again with the diode at a cool temperature. To cool the laser diode, connect the TEC black wire to the Agilent bench supply negative output terminal (V1) and the red wire to the postive output terminal. Increase the voltage very slowly until a current of 1A flows through the TEC. The resistance will be observed to increase as the device cools. Wait five to ten minutes until the lowest possible temperature is reached and is relatively stable (this may require the voltage to be reduced slightly) then repeat the measurements of optical output power vs. current. The TEC current is kept applied during this time to continually cool the device. After the run is complete, record the temperature of the laser diode.
Now reverse the current through the TEC (reverse the positive and negative terminals), allow the diode to heat to a maximum point (again, stabilizing), and repeat measurements again (including temperature).
Upon leaving the lab, you should have three sets of PowervsCurrent data for the diode at three different temperatures. You will also have three resistance readings.
Tutorial: TwoSlope Analysis using Excel^{TM}
Using Excel to create a twoslope analysis: (This example assumes Excel 2013 ... actual procedure may vary slightly if a different version is used)
 Graph data in the usual manner: enter all experimental data into to columns (representing X and Y), highlight all the data points, and plot a graph. This is done for the example data given for the entire range x=1 through x=6.
 Determine the two ranges required for the two linear lines. In the example graph given, the upper range is defined by the x=4 through x=6 values and the lower range by the x=1 through x=3 values. This is done by inspection so that each range covers only the appropriate linear region (read the application note for more on these regions).
 Right click on the existing graph, click "Select Data", then "ADD" a series. Select the data for the new series using the upper range you determined, in this case the x=4 through x=6 values.
 Add a trendline though the new series. Be sure to forecast backwards one period (or more, as required), and display the line equation on the graph.
 Repeat the same process with the lower range of data (add series, add trendline, forecast forward one period, display equation).
 Finally, to find the intercept of the two lines set the first equation (y=) equal to the second equation (y=) and solve for x algebraically. The answer will be in terms of x= which is precisely what is desired. In the example given, (X3)=(0.175X0.0833) and so solving for X gives 3.535.
Lab Report
Hand In a WORD PROCESSED (not handwritten) lab report with contents as outlined below.
The FIRST PAGE must be a title page containing nothing more than the title of the lab, the course, the student's name and ID number, and the names of your lab partner(s).
Answer each question as "1", "2", etc with each new question starting on a NEW PAGE so that question 2 starts on the top of a new page (with the title "Question 2") and question 3 starts at the top of a different page (with the title "Question 3"), etc. You'll have, therefore, at _least_ seven pages in this report.
The lab must be submitted in a report cover (either a threehole punched cover or one with a clamp on the left side, NOT A BINDER), and NEVER as a stapled mass of loose papers
Failure to follow this simple outline, used for all condensed labs in this course, will result in deduction of marks
PLAGIARISM WARNING: All labs are to be done individually so while the data may be the same as your lab partner, each lab and each analysis presented must be your own unique work. Where two or more labs are copied, each student involved will receive a mark of zero and will be required to meet with the associate dean who will assess further penalties (including expulsion for repeat offenders).
Lab reports are to be submitted in a small, thin folder, NOT A BINDER.
LAB SUBMISSION:
Observations
 Three tables of "raw" data, and corresponding graphs, of optical powervscurrent data (with current, in mA, on the xaxis). Be sure to label the graph axes and graph titles properly.
 In the last lab, you used the simple linear fit (single line) method to find the bandgap voltage from an I/V graph. While the same method could be used here to find the threshold current (i.e. the minimum current at which laser output begins) it has some shortcomings as outlined in the application note you read. To improve results, we will use the twosegment method.
Using the method described in the ILX application note determine the threshold current of the laser diode at each temperature using the twosegment linefit method. Show the graph of each set of I/P data with TWO lines superimposed on each graph (so three graphs are required, one at each operating temperature, and each graph will have the I/P data shown plus two linear lines). The equations for each line must be shown on the graph (to at least three significant figures) and an example algebraic calculation of threshold current shown for one graph. Show the numerical value of threshold current determined by this linefit method DIRECTLY on each graph (i.e. add a text box as required to show it directly on the graph near the intersection of the two lines). NOTHING can be handwritten here  use the spreadsheet to make professionallooking graphs only.
 Research, in section 5.8 of Laser Modeling, the concept of characteristic temperature of a laser diode. Use the highest and lowest temperature values recorded (and corresponding values of threshold current determined in this experiment) to compute a value for the characteristic temperature of this laser diode. Show the complete set of calculations.
 Now that you have calculated the characteristic temperature of this device, use that value to compute the expected threshold current at the minimum and maximum operating temperatures for the device (as found in the datasheet). Show a complete set of calculations.
 Research what "slope efficiency" is (in section 3.5 of Laser Modeling) and then compute it from the powervscurrent graphs for each temperature. Show one set of calculations detailing how you obtained this value. The resulting slope of each graph will be in units of rise/run or mW/mA. Compare this to the corresponding values reported in the datasheet for the laser diode.
Technology
 Peltier effect coolers are used extensively in the photonics industry to control the temperature of devices.
Explain how a Peltiereffect thermoelectric element works. Include a diagram showing the composition of the device (including the semiconductor "pellets" which constitute the device). Be specific and explain, in a paragraph or two, how heat flows in the device and how the direction of current dictates the flow of heat (so that the same device can heat or cool).