PHTN1400: Principles Of Laser Systems
(2017 Winter)



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Course Description

The basic principles from PHTN1300 are applied in this practical course which examines the operating principles, procedures, maintenance, and applications of specific laser systems including, primarily, solid-state lasers (e.g. YAG and ruby) and gas (e.g. CO2, excimer, and legacy ion) types. Power/pump sources, laser structure, cavity optics, basic laser processes, beam characteristics, and emission spectra for these lasers are examined. Specifics of wavelength selection (for multi-line lasers and those sharing energy levels between several transitions), pulse generation (including Q-switching, modelocking, and femtosecond pulse generatioin), and non-linear optics (harmonic generation and OPO) are included. Safety issues (e.g. laser classes and eyewear OD) will also be covered. A laboratory component allows students to investigate the operational principles of practical laser systems.

Prerequisites

Prerequisites for this course include PHTN1300 Principles of Light Sources and Lasers. This course is required for entry into PHTN1400.

This course is a prerequisite for PHTN1500 in the fall term. Failure to pass either the theory or lab/practical portion of this course will result in ineligibility to progress to this course in the fall term.

Evaluation ...

Three midterm examinations, valued at 20% each, as follows ...

Midterm #1 Ninety minutes, In Class, on Thursday Feb 16th
Midterm #2 Ninety minutes, In Class, on Thursday,March 16th
Midterm #3 Ninety minutes, In Class, on week 14

Labs and assignments combined for a total of 40%

Course Policies ...

Course policies follow the Standardized Policies and Procedures for CEE (dated January 2011). In summary:

Complete course policies can be found in the Teaching and Learning Plan (T&LP) document found on Blackboard.

Textbooks

There are two textbooks in this course. These same texts were used last term in PHTN1300 and will be used in the third year in PHTN1500 (i.e. you will not have to purchase another text for PHTN1500).

Fundamentals of Light Sources and Lasers by Csele, 2004, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-47660-9

Chapters 5 to 14 are covered in this course.

Laser Modeling: A Numerical Approach with Algebra and Calculus by Csele, 2014, CRC Press, ISBN 9781466582507

Chapters 3, and 5 are covered in this course.

ERRATA: In Laser Modeling, in unity-gain equations (2.1), (2.6), and (2.8) the correct terms are egx not e-gx. Gain is always a positive quantity, attenuation is negative.

Course Notes and Links

Laboratory Assignments

Students in 2017W will complete six laboratory assignments each one or two weeks in length. Lab sections are split into smaller groups (A and B) which perform different parts of the lab alternatively.

ALL students will perform a lab EVERY WEEK

NOTE: You will NOT be permitted into the lab and will be marked absent unless BOTH PARTS of the safety quiz on Blackboard has been successfully completed by Monday 2017/01/16 at 8:30 am.

Lab 0: Safety

This lab will introduce students to the safety interlock system and safety procedures in V115. In the lab we will review the correct choice of safety glasses (which students must do before each and every lab). Attendance at this lab is mandatory.

PRELAB: Viewing the safety video and successful completion of both parts of the SAFETY QUIZ on Blackboard must be completed before entry to this lab or an immediate penalty of 5% will be applied to the lab mark and you will be DENIED ENTRANCE to any subsequent lab (labs #1 through #5) until both parts of the quiz are complete (and each lab will be marked as absent).

The absolute, Blackboard-enforced, deadline for successful completion of the entire two-part safety quiz is Monday, 2017/01/16 at 10:00 am. After that an immediate 5% penalty is applied. Do this early as NO compensation will be given for lack of availability of a website, computer error, or any other excuses.

WARNING: Before the start of this lab, all students in this course are required to watch a safety video and successfully complete a two-part quiz on laser safety (based on the video, and on lecture notes). This video can be found on the Coherent, Inc website or on YouTube. The video covers a range of general laser safety topics. The quiz (in two parts) is to be completed on BLACKBOARD, not the Coherent site!

Before attempting the actual quiz (which is time-limited and must be completed once started), print the required documents from Blackboard and complete the sample safety quiz on blackboard as it will demonstrate the type of calculations required for the actual quiz. If you cannot complete those calculations correctly, remedial action is required on your part prior to attempting the quiz as you are limited in the number of attempts before a severe penalty is applied.

Well before Monday the 16th, do the following ...
  1. PRINT the three-page safety glass specs from BLACKBOARD
  2. VIEW the required safety video from Coherent
  3. WRITE the First Part of the quiz which concerns regulations. A minimum mark of 14/15 is required
  4. REVIEW the safety glass OD calculations from lecture notes then WRITE the Sample Quiz on BLACKBOARD to ensure you understand how it is done
  5. WRITE the Second Part of the quiz which concerns OD calculations. A minimum mark of 5/6 is required


Both lab groups will attend this lab on the week of 2017/01/16

Lab 1A: Safety

In this one-week lab, safety concepts and safe operating procedures of high-power lasers are examined including the concept of Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ) and the required optical density (OD) of safety glasses. As a laboratory example, the safety of green laser pointers (with 'leakage' emissions at the pump wavelength of 808nm and lasing wavelength of 1064nm) will also be examined.

Lab Weighting: 1.0
This lab runs in tandem with Lab #1B: Half of the lab groups complete lab #1B while the other half complete lab #1A.

Lab group A will perform the lab on the week of 2017/01/23
Lab group B will perform the lab on the week of 2017/01/30
PRELAB for each group due on entry to the lab period

Successful completion of the two-part Safety Quiz on BLACKBOARD is required for ALL groups BEFORE admission to this lab. NO EXCEPTIONS: NO SUCCESSFUL QUIZ, NO LAB ADMISSION (A mark of ZERO will then result, followed by course condition and finally EXPULSION ... we do NOT negotiate with safety!).

Lab report is DUE for group A on the week of 2017/01/30 (at the beginning of the lab period), and for group B on the week of 2016/02/06 (at the beginning of the lab period)


Lab 1B: Alignment of High Power Lasers

In this one-week lab, the complete alignment of the optics of a large-bore MPB IN-100 carbon-dioxide laser will be performed using a coaxial HeNe laser beam (a different method than used previously in PHTN1300). A pyrocam will then be used to analyze beam structure under optimized and non-optimal conditions. In the lab assignment, and the prelab, the simple model will be adapted to predict output power of this laser and a simulation will be used to demonstrate how gain saturates in an operating laser.

Lab Weighting: 1.0
This lab runs in tandem with Lab #1A: Half of the lab groups complete lab #1B while the other half complete lab #1A.

Lab group A will perform the lab on the week of 2017/01/30
Lab group B will perform the lab on the week of 2017/01/23
PRELAB for each group due on entry to the lab period

Successful completion of the two-part Safety Quiz on BLACKBOARD is required for ALL groups BEFORE admission to this lab. NO EXCEPTIONS: NO SUCCESSFUL QUIZ, NO LAB ADMISSION (A mark of ZERO will then result, followed by course condition and finally EXPULSION ... we do NOT negotiate with safety!).

Lab report is DUE for group A on the week of 2017/02/06 (at the beginning of the lab period), and for group B on the week of 2017/01/30 (at the beginning of the lab period)


Lab #2: DPSS Lasers


A complete overview of DPSS design concepts including the thermal and optical characteristics of pump diodes, optical absorption characteristics of vanadate (Nd:YVO4), and temperature sensitivity of harmonic generators (phase-matching).

Lab Weighting: 2.0
Lab group A will perform part A on the week of 2017/02/06, part B on the week of 2017/02/13
Lab group B will perform part B on the week of 2017/02/06, part A on the week of 2017/02/13

Lab report is DUE on the week of 2017/02/20 (at the beginning of the next lab period). For the MONDAY labs only, the lab is due on Tuesday 2017/02/21 at 3:30 pm at the beginning of the lecture period.


Lab #3: Q-Switched Lasers


The operation of AOM devices and Q-Switching is investigated. An external AOM is aligned for Bragg diffraction, with the effective intra-cavity loss determined, and an AOM modified for use as a PCAOM will be used to separate the multiple wavelength (RGB) output of a 'white light' HeCd laser. In addition, a Q-switch will be aligned on a real flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser and the gain (and hence holdoff of the switch) determined.

Lab Weighting: 2.0
FRIDAY Lab group A will perform part A on 2017/02/24, part B on 2017/03/10
FRIDAY Lab group B will perform part B on 2017/02/24, part A on 2017/03/10
MONDAY Lab group A will perform part A on 2017/03/06, part B on 2017/03/13
MONDAY Lab group B will perform part B on 2017/03/06, part A on 2017/03/13
PRELAB due on entry to the first lab period (FRIDAY 2017/02/24 or MONDAY 2017/03/06)

Lab report is DUE for FRIDAY lab groups on 2017/03/17 (at the beginning of the next lab period) or for MONDAY lab groups on 2017/03/20 (at the beginning of the next lab period)


Lab #4A: Ultrafast (Modelocked) Femtosecond Lasers


Students will use a Tsunami femtosecond modelocked laser, aligning the laser for proper modelocking operation including the control of regenerative phase delay, dispersion control in the wavelength selector of the laser, and prevention of CW breakthrough during modelocked operation.

Lab Weighting: 2.0
FRIDAY Lab group A will perform this lab on 2017/03/17
FRIDAY Lab group B will perform this lab on 2017/03/24
MONDAY Lab group A will perform this lab on 2017/03/20
MONDAY Lab group B will perform this lab on 2017/03/27

Lab report is DUE for FRIDAY lab group A on 2017/03/24 (at the beginning of the next lab period), for FRIDAY lab group B on 2017/03/31 (at the beginning of the next lab period), for MONDAY lab group A on 2017/03/27 (at the beginning of the next lab period), for MONDAY lab group B on 2017/04/03 (at the beginning of the next lab period)


Lab #4B: First Pulse Suppression


A survey of advanced Q-switching techniques is provided in this lab. The giant first pulse phenomenon is investigated along with the first pulse suppression (FPS) technique in which students will optimize the Q-Switch driver of a commercial DPSS laser.

Lab Weighting: 2.0
FRIDAY Lab group B will perform this lab on 2017/03/17
FRIDAY Lab group A will perform this lab on 2017/03/24
MONDAY Lab group B will perform this lab on 2017/03/20
MONDAY Lab group A will perform this lab on 2017/03/27

Lab report is DUE for FRIDAY lab group B on 2017/03/24 (at the beginning of the next lab period), for FRIDAY lab group A on 2017/03/31 (at the beginning of the next lab period), for MONDAY lab group B on 2017/03/27 (at the beginning of the next lab period), for MONDAY lab group A on 2017/04/03 (at the beginning of the next lab period)


Lab #5: Pulsed Gas Lasers

Students will mix various gas fills for a Lumonics Excimer 500 and a Lumonics TEA-203 CO2 laser in V15 and will study the effect on power output. In the excimer laser, a Helium-Nitrogen mixture will be employed with various concentrations of nitrogen (the active lasing species) and the effect of nitrogen concentration on output power noted. In the TEA laser pressure and voltage will be varied. Results will be correlated with the calculated E/P ratio of the gases employed.

Lab Weighting: 2.0
FRIDAY Lab group A will perform part A on 2017/03/31, part B on 2017/04/07
FRIDAY Lab group B will perform part B on 2017/03/31, part A on 2017/04/07
MONDAY Lab group A will perform part A on 2017/04/03, part B on 2017/04/10
MONDAY Lab group B will perform part B on 2017/04/03, part A on 2017/04/10

Lab report is DUE for FRIDAY lab groups on Monday 2017/04/17 at 9:30 am sharp (due to the Good Friday holiday) or for MONDAY lab groups on 2017/04/17 (at the beginning of the next lab period)


The lab schedule is subject to change based on availability of laboratory equipment

Contacts

For the Photonics Technician/Technology programs ...

For this specific course ...

Professor Mark Csele
Office: V13A (Office hours are POSTED on the Electroluminescent panel on the office door)
Telephone: (905) 735-2211 x.7629
E-Mail: (Be sure to include 'Lasers' in the subject line to avoid deletion by an anti-spam filter)

URL: http://technology.niagarac.on.ca/staff/mcsele

You are visitor # since Jan, 2005
Copyright (C) Professor M. Csele and Niagara College, Canada, 2005-2017
This course is part of the TECHNOLOGY division

Some images and text excerpted from Fundamentals of Light Sources and Lasers by Csele, John Wiley & Sons, 2004, ISBN 0-471-47660-9 and hence are Copyright John Wiley and Sons. Some images and text excerpted from Laser Modeling: A Numerical Approach with Algebra and Calculus by Csele, CRC Press, 2014, ISBN 9781466582507. Further reproduction in any form is prohibited without written approval from the publishers.