(2016 Fall)

In this course, students will mathematically model laser systems and processes with an emphasis of application of models to real-world lasers. Beginning with a pass-by-pass model, several approaches will be taken to improve accuracy when applied to high-gain lasers including the treatment of laser amplifiers as multiple segments. Comparison will then be made to the "gold standard" Rigrod model (which will be developed in lectures) and the Rigrod model will be adapted to handle real losses.

The effects of temperature on both diode and solid-state media will be investigated and application made to the design of DPSS systems (a convolution model being used to predict the effects of diode temperature drift on ultimate output power of the system). As well, thermalization of the LLL of quasi-three-level media will be investigated as re-absorption loss is considered (including such effects as Stark splitting of the LLL which occurs in most real solid-state media). Implications to laser design (e.g. end-pumping) will then be considered.

For pulsed (i.e. flashlamp pumped) lasers, models will be developed predicting the growth and decay of inversion as a function of time allowing determination of optimal parameters for Q-switching. Passive Q-switches will be examined including the effect of Excited State Absorption (ESA) which limits performance of these switches.

A model will then be presented from __Laser Modeling__ predicting the output power as a function of inversion in a solid-state laser - this model will then be used with double-pulse lasers as an example application as well as with the First Pulse suppression (FPS) scheme to predict pulse power (as well as control the magnitude of this pulse through control of the switch transmision).

Many models will use numerical methods and will utilize spreadsheets. The goal is application of theoretical models to real lasers and so a substantial lab component allows students can examine application of, and prove, various models developed in the course on a variety of lasers.

This course is offered as part of the Photonics Engineering Technology (3 year) Program at Niagara College.

Three midterm examinations, totalling 60%, as follows ...

50 minutes, in class, worth 20%. Covers the Pass-by-pass model, the Rigrod approach (with application to real lasers), and diode laser threshold models.

50 minutes, in class, worth 20%. Covers quasi-three-level lasers, Stark splitting of levels, and the convolution model for predicting the effect of pump wavelength drift.

50 minutes, in class, worth 20%. Covers Q-switched lasers, the inversion model, passive switches (including ESA), and the power model and applications (including double-pulse lasers and FPS).

Labs and assignments combined for a total of 40%

Course policies follow the Standardized Policies and Procedures for CEE (dated January 2011). In summary:

- LATE assignments are worth ZERO. There is no "grace period" with a "per day" penalty. Late submissions (i.e. ANY not printed and ready when you enter the lab) receive a mark of zero. You will be DENIED access to the printer at the start of the lab - either the lab is ready to submit, or it is late and hence worth zero.
- Students are allowed only ONE single-day late submission without penalty. This is a once only one-day extension ... once used, any further late submission will receive an automatic zero.
- Students must pass the theory (testing) and practical (lab/assignment) portions of the course separately in order to receive a passing grade. If a failing grade is received in either portion, then the lower of the two marks (theory or practical) will become the final grade.
- In order to be considered for supplementary evaluation (SE) upon failure in this course, a mark of 50% minimum will be required in the practical (lab/assignment) portion of the course plus a mark of 45% minimum in the theory (testing) portion. A theory mark of 44% or less, or a lab mark of 49% or less, will result in failure with no SE option.
- Granting of an SE is not automatic - those qualifying for an SE must apply to the chair who will arrange for the SE (since staff must be assigned to deliver the SE). Attendance and lab performance will be considered.
- Devices capable of RF reception are specifically
__banned__during all examinations and tests. This includes cell phones (which are not permitted, whether turned on or not) as well as tablets and laptops. Scientific calculators must not have RF capability (i.e. the use of a cell phone, tablet, or laptop as a calculator is expressly forbidden even if the "wireless" function is switched off). Translational references and dictionaries must be in paper form, not on an electronic device.

Complete course policies can be found in the Teaching and Learning Plan (T&LP) document found on Blackboard.

__Laser Modeling: A Numerical Approach with Algebra and Calculus__ by Csele, 2014, CRC Press, ISBN 9781466582507

The text, and the models presented within it, will be used extensively in this course including the Pass-by-pass model (chapter 3), Rigrod approach (chapter 4), Quasi-three-level lasers and Stark splitting (chapter 5), Convolution model (chapter 5), and models for inversions in Q-switched lasers (chapter 6).

- Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for lasers in Niagara College's high powered laser labs.
**Laser Gain**a review of concepts from the most important concept from last year. Password Protected PDF**Gain Saturation**a review of concepts from the second most important concept from last year. Password Protected PDF- Simulating Laser Power in-class notes on power buildup in the HeNe laser from class. Accompanies the example spreadsheet. Password protected PDF.
- Power Development Simulation A rudimentary (round-trip) Pass-by-Pass model simulating power growth in a HeNe laser. Password-protected XLS
- Rigrod Theory and Application in-class notes. Password protected PDF.
- Predicting Pump Threshold in-class notes expanding on
__Csele__5.10 and an excellent pre-lab. Password protected PDF - Reabsorption In Solid State Lasers a discussion of thermalization of the LLL, including Stark splitting of LLLs. Password protected PDF
- Convolution applying the technique of convolution to predict the effects of diode wavelength drift on the output of a DPSS system. Password protected PDF
- Formula Sheet as supplied with the first test
- Midterm #2 Preview practice questions for the midterm
- Modeling Solid-State Lasers a tutorial for the Time Domain Modelling lab. Password protected PDF
- Passive Q-Switches from the lectures. Password protected PDF
- Article: Passive Q-Switches read before the second lecture on passive Q-Switches. Password protected PDF
- Applying The Power Model notes from the lecture on application of the model from
__Laser Modeling__to double-pulse lasers and first "giant" pulse production. Password protected PDF - Example Test #3 Problem an example of a time domain model predicting inversion. Password protected PDF
- Midterm #3 Preview practice questions for the midterm
- Formula Sheet as supplied with the third test

Week 1: (Review)

Week 2:

Week 3:

Week 4:

Week 6:

Week 9:

Week 10:

Week 11:

Week 12:

Week 13:

There are several labs and assignments in this course. Lab sessions are two-hours in length.

In line with departmental policies, **the lab/assignment portion of this course MUST be passed SEPARATELY from the theory portion in order to pass this course.** Late labs result in an immediate mark of **ZERO** with no exceptions and no excuses accepted (including the now infamous "my printer ran out of ink" and "my computer died"). Failure to submit a lab (and a late lab is considered failed and will receive a mark of zero) will result in the student being placed on course condition. Failure to submit a second lab results in immediate **EXPULSION** from the course.

Labs on week 4 (Week starting 2016/09/26) in V15 - No two-hour lecture this week

Lab on week 9 (Week Starting 2016/10/31) in V15 - No two-hour lecture this week

Lab on week 11 (Week Starting 2016/11/14) in V15 - No two-hour lecture this week

*The lab schedule is subject to change based on availability of laboratory equipment*

__ For the Photonics Technician/Technology programs ...__
Program Coordinator Alexander McGlashan

Office: S106

Telephone (905) 735-2211 x.7513

E-Mail:

Office: V13A (Office hours are

Telephone: (905) 735-2211 x.7629

E-Mail:

URL: http://technology.niagarac.on.ca/staff/mcsele

This course is part of the

*Some images and text excerpted from Laser Modeling: A Numerical Approach with Algebra and Calculus by Csele, CRC Press, 2014, ISBN 9781466582507. Further reproduction in any form is prohibited without written approval from the publisher.*